What is ‘causality’ (between X and Y variables)? What is a ‘correlation’?
What were the arguments of Cesare Beccaria & Jeremy Bentham? How did their ideas fit into the social context of their time (the 18th century)?
How does classical criminology relate to deterrence theory? How did Beccaria and
What is the difference between ‘special’ (or ‘specific’) and ‘general’ deterrence?