In modern,ancient Romerefers tocivilization from the founding of the city ofin the 8th century BC to the collapse of thein the 5th century AD. It encompasses the(753509 BC),(50927 BC) and(27 BC476 AD) until the fall of the western empire.
Ancient Rome began as ansettlement, traditionally dated to 753 BC, beside thein the. The settlement grew into the city and polity of Rome, and came to control its neighbours through a combination of treaties and military strength. It eventually dominated the Italian peninsula, and acquired an Empire that took in much of Europe and the nations surrounding the Mediterranean. It was among thein the ancient world, with an estimated 50 to 90million inhabitants, roughly 20% of the world’s population at the time. It covered around 5million square kilometres (1.9million square miles) at its height in AD 117.
The Roman state evolved from anto aand then to an increasinglyduring the Empire. Through conquest,, and, at its height it controlled thecoast,,, and most of, the,and much of the, including,and parts ofand. It is often grouped intotogether with, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the.
Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, religion, society, technology, law, politics, government, warfare, art, literature, architecture and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called, the inspiration for modernsuch as the United States and France.It achieved impressiveandfeats, such as the empire-wide construction ofand, as well as more grandiose monuments and facilities.
Thewithgave Rome supremacy in the Mediterranean. The Roman Empire emerged with theof(from 27 BC); Rome’s imperial domain now extended from the Atlantic toand from the mouth of theto North Africa. In 92 AD, Rome came up against the resurgentand became involved in history’s longest-running conflict, the, which would have lasting effects on both empires. Under, Rome’s empire reached its territorial peak, encompassing the entire, the southern margins of the, and the shores of theandSeas. Republicanstarted to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a common prelude to the rise of a new emperor.Splinter states, such as the, would temporarily divide the Empire during thebefore some stability was restored in thephase of imperial rule.
Plagued by internal instability andby various migrating peoples, the western part of the empireinto independentin the 5th century.Theremained a power through the Middle Ages until itsin 1453 AD.