Communication(fromcommunicare, meaning “to share” or “to be in relation with”)is “an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner thought and outer world.”As this definition indicates, communication is difficult to define in a consistent manner,because it is commonly used to refer to a wide range of different behaviors (broadly: “the transfer of information”), or to limit what can be included in the category of communication (for example, requiring a “conscious intent” to persuade). John Peters argues the difficulty of defining communication emerges from the fact that communication is both a universal phenomenon (because everyone communicates) and a specificof institutional academic study.
One possible definition of communication is the act of developingamongorthrough the use of sufficiently mutually understood,, andconventions.
In‘s and‘s influentialmodel, human communication was imagined to function like a telephone or telegraph.Accordingly, they conceptualized communication as involving discrete steps:
These elements are now understood to be substantially overlapping and recursive activities rather than steps in a sequence.For example, communicative actions can commence before a communicator formulates a conscious attempt to do so,as in the case of; likewise, communicators modify their intentions and formulations of a message in response to real-time feedback (e.g., a change in).Practices of decoding and interpretation are culturally enacted, not just by individuals (conventions, for instance, trigger anticipatory expectations for how a message is to be received), and receivers of any message operationalize their own frames of reference in interpretation.