In the first part of the essay discuss the importance of microeconomics of farmer behavior and agriculture development in the developing countries, giving specific examples
In economic science, thetragedy of the commonsis a situation in which individual users, who have open access to a resource unhampered by shared social structures or formal rules that govern access and use,act independently according to theirand, contrary to the common good of all users, cause depletion of the resource through their uncoordinated action.The concept originated in an essay written in 1833 by the British economist,who used a hypothetical example of the effects of unregulated grazing on(also known as a “common”) inand.The concept became widely known as the “tragedy of the commons” over a century later after an article written byin 1968.
Although open-access resource systems may collapse due to overuse (such as in), many examples have existed and still do exist where members of a community with regulated access to a common resource co-operate to exploit those resources prudently without collapse,or even creating “perfect order”.was awarded the 2009for demonstrating exactly this concept in her bookGoverning the Commons,which included examples of how local communities were able to do this without top-down regulations or.
In a modern economic context, “” is taken to mean any open-access and unregulated resource such as the,,, ocean, or even an office refrigerator.In a legal context, it is a type of property that is neither private nor public, but rather held jointly by the members of a community, who govern access and use through social structures, traditions, or formal rules.
In, the “tragedy of the commons” is often cited in connection with,meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the.It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of,,,,,, and