Write about queer theory in the novel the line of beauty
Because the social acceptance of homosexuality has varied in many world cultures throughout history, LGBT literature has covered a vast array of themes and concepts. LGBT individuals have often turned to literature as a source of validation, understanding, and beautification of same-sex attraction. In contexts where homosexuality has been perceived negatively, LGBT literature may also document the psychological stresses and alienation suffered by those experiencing prejudice, legal discrimination,, self-loathing, bullying, violence, religious condemnation, denial, suicide, persecution, and other such obstacles.
Themes of love between individuals of the same gender are found in a variety of ancient texts throughout the world. The ancient Greeks, in particular, explored the theme on a variety of different levels in such works as Plato’s.
Manyand religious narratives include stories of romantic affection or sexuality between men or feature divine actions that result in changes in gender. These myths have been interpreted as forms of LGBT expression and modern conceptions of sexuality and gender have been applied to them. Myths have been used by individual cultures, in part, to explain and validate their particular social institutions or to explain the cause of transgender identity or homosexuality.
, male lovers were attributed to ancientand heroes such as,,and(including,,and, respectively) as a reflection and validation of the tradition of.
Thoughdid not explicitly portray the heroesas homosexual lovers in his 8th century BCepic, the,later ancient authors presented the intense relationship as such.In his 5th century BC lost tragedy,casts Achilles and Patroclus as pederastic lovers. In a surviving fragment of the play, Achilles speaks of “our frequent kisses” and a “devout union of the thighs”.does the same in his(385370 BC); the speakercites Aeschylus and holds Achilles up as an example of how people will be more brave and even sacrifice themselves for their lovers.In his orationAgainst Timarchus,argues that though Homer “hides their love and avoids giving a name to their friendship”, Homer assumed that educated readers would understand the “exceeding greatness of their affection”.Plato’sSymposiumalso includes athat explains homo- and heterosexuality (speech) and celebrates the pederastic tradition and erotic love between men (speech), as does another of his,.
The tradition of(as early as 650 BC) and later the acceptance of limitedinfused an awareness of male-male attraction and sex into ancient poetry. In theof‘s(1st century BC), the shepherdproclaims his love for the boy Alexis.Some of the erotic poetry ofin the same century is directed at other men (Carmen 48,50, and99),and in a(Carmen 61) he portrays a maleabout to be supplanted by his master’s future wife.The first line of his infamous which has been called “one of the filthiest expressions ever written in Latinor in any other language, for that matter” contains explicit homosexual sex acts.
Thebyis a Latin work of fiction detailing the misadventures of Encolpius and his lover, a handsome and promiscuous sixteen-year-old servant boy named Giton. Written in the 1st century AD during the reign of, it is the earliest known text of its kind depicting homosexuality.
In the celebrated Japanese work, written byin the early 11th century,the title characteris rejected by the ladyin chapter 3 and instead sleeps with her young brother: “Genji pulled the boy down beside him … Genji, for his part, or so one is informed, found the boy more attractive than his chilly sister.”
‘s, published anonymously in 1652, is an Italianwritten as a defense of homosexual. The first such explicit work known to be written since ancient times, its intended purpose as a ““, a defense of, or a work ofis unknown, and debated.
SeveralEuropean works contain references to homosexuality, such as in, a French, in which the knight Lanval is accused byof having “no desire for women”.Others include homosexual themes, like.
The era known as the(the 1650s to the 1780s) gave rise to, in part, a general challenge to the traditional doctrines of society in Western Europe. A particular interest in the Classical era of Greece and Rome “as a model for contemporary life” put the Greek appreciation of nudity, the male form and male friendship (and the inevitable homoerotic overtones) into art and literature.It was common for gay authors at this time to include allusions to Greek mythological characters as a code that homosexual readers would recognize.Gay men of the period “commonly understood ancient Greece and Rome to be societies where homosexual relationships were tolerated and even encouraged,” and references to those cultures might identify an author or book’s sympathy with gay readers and gay themes but probably be overlooked by straight readers.Despite the “increased visibility of queer behavior” and prospering networks of male prostitution in cities like Paris and London, homosexual activity had been outlawed in England (and by extension, the United States) as early as the. Across much of Europe in the 1700s and 1800s, the legal punishment for sodomy was death, making it dangerous to publish or distribute anything with overt gay themes.James Jenkins ofnoted:
These sorts of coded, subtextual ways of writing about homosexuality were often necessary, since up until the 1950s British authors could be prosecuted for writing openly about homosexuality, and in the U.S., authors and publishers could also face legal action and suppression of their books, not to mention social or moral condemnation that might end an author’s career.
Many earlyauthors, like,and, were homosexual, and would sublimate these themes and express them in more acceptable forms, using transgressive genres like Gothic and horror fiction.The title character of Lewis’s(1796) falls in love with young novice Rosario, and though Rosario is later revealed to be a woman named Matilda, the gay subtext is clear.A similar situation occurs in‘sThe Fatal Revenge(1807) when the valet Cyprian asks his master, Ippolito, to kiss him as though he were Ippolito’s lover; later Cyprian is also revealed to be a woman. In Maturin’s(1820), the close friendship between a young monk and a new novice is scrutinized as potentially “too like love.”‘s novella(1872) was the firststory,and influenced‘s(1897).Stoker’s novel has its own homoerotic aspects, as whenwarns off the femaleand claims, saying “This man belongs to me!”
(1805) byis “the earliest known novel that centers on an explicitly male-male love affair”.Set in ancient Greece, the German novel features several couplesincluding a homosexual onefalling in love, overcoming obstacles and living happily ever after. Thegaining momentum at the end of the 18th century allowed men to “express deep affection for each other”, and the motif of ancient Greece as “a utopia of male-male love” was an acceptable vehicle to reflect this, but some of Duke August’s contemporaries felt that his characters “stepped over the bounds of manly affection into unseemly eroticism.”The first American gay novel was(1870) by, the story of a newly engaged young man who finds himself instead falling in love with another man.Robert K. Martin called it “quite explicit in its adoption of a political stance toward homosexuality” and notes that the character Philip “argues for the ‘rights’ of those ‘who cannot shape themselves according to the common-place pattern of society.’”‘s 1898 play,At St. Judas’s, and 1919 novel,, are noted as among the earliest published American works in literature on the theme of homosexual relationships.
The new “atmosphere of frankness” created by the Enlightenment sparked the production of pornography like‘s infamous(1749), which features a rare graphic scene of male homosexual sex.Published anonymously a century later,(1881) and(1893) are two of the earliest pieces of English-language pornography to explicitly and near-exclusively concern homosexuality.The Sins of the Cities of the Plainis about a male prostitute, and set in London around the time of theand thetrials.Teleny, chronicling a passionate affair between a Frenchman and a Hungarian pianist, is often attributed to a collaborative effort by Wilde and some of his contemporaries.Wilde’s more mainstream(1890) still shocked readers with its sensuality and overtly homosexual characters.Drew Banks called Dorian Gray a groundbreaking gay character because he was “one of the first in a long list offellows whose homosexual tendencies secured a terrible fate.”The French realistin his novel(1880) depicted, along with a wide variety of heterosexual couplings and some lesbian scenes, a single homosexual character, Labordette. Paris theater society and thedemi-mondeare long accustomed to his presence and role as go-between; he knows all the women, escorts them, and runs errands for them. He is “a parasite, with even a touch of pimp”, but also a more sympathetic figure than most of the men, as much a moral coward as them but physically brave and not a stereotype.